Videos on the Torreya Guardians Website

Educational VIDEO series to document the citizen science/naturalist projects of the all-volunteer Torreya Guardians in human-assisted migration of America's most endangered conifer tree, Florida Torreya (Torreya taxifolia), northward in this time of rapid climate change.

Note: Videos are numbered and listed in reverse order of posting (newest to oldest).

FULL LIST (37 videos) is below, but first are SUGGESTIONS:

TWO DECADES OF CITIZEN ACTION: November 2022, Connie Barlow voiced her reflections on the history of Torreya Guardians, then added a lot of images and text overlays for educational value. This is VIDEO 35 (43 minutes).

EARLY HISTORY of Torreya Guardians: VIDEO 21 is a 16-minute OVERVIEW by co-founder Lee Barnes. For a lot more detail, watch VIDEO 1 by Connie Barlow (71 minutes).

• Two videos feature GROVES OF MATURE, HEALTHY TREES planted almost a century ago in North Carolina: Biltmore Gardens near Asheville (VIDEO 18) and Harbison House near Highlands (VIDEO 11). Other tall mature trees are at Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve in Louisiana (VIDEO 30). Clearly, Torreya taxifolia can thrive well outside its Florida home — and it is far from invasive in recipient ecosystems. Note: In 2018, a new webpage, "Historic Groves" was added to this website, which provides contextual and updated information on each of these three key historic groves.

VIDEO 27 documents FIRST SEED PRODUCTION IN OHIO by a thriving set of dozen-year old torreyas in Cleveland.

For volunteers planting seeds directly into forests (skipping the potted stage) two videos are essential: VIDEO 28 shows remarkable RECOVERY FROM RODENT HERBIVORY among the "free-planted" seeds put directly into forest soil 5 summers earlier near Franklin NC. VIDEO 31 (in 2 parts) is the first freeplanting site to evidence zero herbivory of seedlings, 4 years after the seeds were planted: What can we learn from this successful habitat?

• A 34-minute video, VIDEO 36, that was recorded and posted in August 2023 shows Torreya volunteer Paul Camire in Michigan talking about 6 years of progress in his forest planting of Torreya seeds and seedlings. This is the most detailed and image-rich way for NEW PLANTERS to learn best practices and avoid herbivory problems.

• Take a virtual field trip to wild locales of Florida Torreya's COUSIN IN CALIFORNIA (Torreya californica) via the two parts of VIDEO 23. Here you will see the amazing ways that this patient, subcanopy tree genus awaits its chance (or grows acrobatically sideways) for a spot in the sun.

VIDEO 17 is a site visit to the PEAK GLACIAL REFUGE: Torreya State Park in Florida. The diversity of both temperate and subtropical plant species there signals the crucial role this riverside habitat played when Ice Age cold pushed temperate species south. The remnant Torreya plants regrowing from disease (or replanted from seedlings raised elsewhere) indicate just how impaired this peak-glacial refuge is now for cold-adapted plants in these decades of rapid global warming.

Connie Barlow's 2015 TECHNICAL PRESENTATION ON 'ASSISTED MIGRATION' to the Forestry School at Michigan Tech University is titled Foresters Outpace Conservation Biologists in Climate Adaptation.

VIDEOS in Reverse Chronological order

EPISODE 37: Assisted Migration of Climate-Endangered Plants - Torreya Guardians lead the way

70 minutes - filmed November 2023

   This 70-minute VIDEO begins with a celebration of the 1,000+ seeds our grower in Ohio produced Autumn 2023. The rest of the video is a presentation by the group's founder, Connie Barlow, of the long and shifting history of scientific speculation and (sometimes faulty) assumptions about the ultimate cause(s) of this ancient conifer's sudden demise in its tiny historical range in Florida.

A new webpage Connie created, "Published Documents on Endangerment Causes of Torreya taxifolia in Florida", is the basis for this educational video. In turn, this new page is linked from the original (and lengthy!) webpage dealing more broadly with this topic: "Torreya taxifolia at the Brink of Extinction — Why?"

BACKGROUND: Motivated by the July 2023 adoption of a new regulation permitting the agency in charge of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) to expand recovery efforts beyond the "historical range" — especially if climate change had already damaged prospects there — Connie began a scholarly search of new papers that might offer guidance for Florida Torreya. What she found was a "paradigm shift" (beginning around 2016) that offered new and compelling scientific reasons for the ESA implementers to follow the lead of this citizen group in "assisted migration" poleward as a way to help this tree regain its ability to fight native diseases. Central to this new understanding is the discovery that all plant tissues — including seeds — harbor beneficial fungal and bacterial partners: what is now called the Plant Microbiome and the Seed Microbiome.

EPISODE 36: Michigan welcomes endangered trees from Florida

34 minutes - filmed August 13, 2023

   This 34-minute VIDEO delves into the details of best forest planting practices. PAUL CAMIRE plants torreya seeds and seedlings in his forest in Capac, Michigan. His experience will encourage other planters to (a) build strong cages to protect torreya where DEER are over-abundant and (b) don't give up when herbivory happens. Torreya will recover! This ancient species may be slow, but it is almost indestructible once it gets a roothold.
    Crucially, too: There is no evidence of winter kill or disease problems. And at timecode 10:52 you will hear Connie's surprise when Paul shows his vibrant Florida yew — another glacial relict left stranded amidst the wild torreya in the panhandle of Florida.
    Visit the Capac Michigan torreya webpage.

EPISODE 35: Torreya Guardians - Reflections by Connie Barlow

43 minutes - filmed November 12, 2022

Filmed November 2022 while cleaning and sorting autumn 2022 seeds harvested from a private home in Clinton, NC. Here Connie reflects on "two decades of citizen action." YOUTUBE CAPTION begins:

   Torreya Guardians is internationally known for conducting the first "assisted migration" action for a climate-endangered plant, Florida Torreya. Advocacy began in 2004, with actions ramping up in 2008. This network of engaged citizens, however, relied on an "exception" (just for plants) in the Endangered Species Act in order to do so legally. Finally, in 2022 the federal agency in charge of endangered species proposed updating the regulations pertaining to "experimental populations" in order to facilitate its use for climate adaptation: helping species move to cooler habitats.

Connie's own efforts began with published advocacy for helping Florida Torreya move north, in her 2001 book, The Ghosts of Evolution, followed by an essay co-authored with Pleistocene ecologist Paul S. Martin, which was published in Wild Earth Winter 2004/2005. It was titled, "Bring Torreya taxifolia North Now."

In 2005 TORREYA GUARDIANS was formed, with substantial help from Lee Barnes. The bulk of this video reports on subsequent actions in citizen-led planting and seed harvesting of this tree into northward states.

VIDEO: "Helping Subcanopy Trees Migrate" - 50 minutes - published November 2021

   "Helping Subcanopy Trees Migrate" is not part of the Torreya Guardians series, but it does include Florida Torreya as one of the two featured subcanopy species of the eastern USA. Pawpaw, Asimina triloba is the other native subcanopy tree featured.

The final 4 minutes show Connie at a new planting site for Torreya seeds in southern Michigan.

Indigenous values are advocated as well as the "natural history" style of observation and interpretation.

IN 2021 Connie Barlow cross-posted two videos from her broader series on ASSISTED MIGRATION as a climate adaptation tool. The series is titled "Helping Forests Walk". View the full captions of each to see the timecodes where TORREYA GUARDIANS actions appear in each.


Episode 1
(55 minutes)

Episode 2
(1 hour)

   34: Florida Torreya Experiments in Southern New Hampshire

Four years of Daein Ballard's assisted migration experiments on his forested property in southern New Hampshire. Ballard has a variety of woodland habitats on his property, running from Hemlock Tree Swamp to groves of White Pine, mixed hardwoods on the lower reaches of a slope, dry oak mini ridge top, and open landscapes of lawn and roadway edges. A key part of his onsite experimentation was outplanting potted seedlings near a variety of distinct canopy species. Ballard concludes, "Torreya is probably not going to do well here for now, unless you put it in very particular areas."

52 minutes - filmed May 18, 2019

   33: Florida Torreya loves Tennessee

Clint Bancroft's Torreya plantings in Ocoee Watershed southeast TN. Sections of the March 2015 (Episode 08) video have been inserted to show the growth achieved in four years. Two key findings, beyond the obvious excellent, disease-free growth.

(1) No herbivory; the plants are in perfect condition. (2) With the help of Jack Johnston, Clint has established a "Torreya Bowl", intended for seed production in a wild setting. Maximizing genetic diversity there is a priority.

40 minutes - filmed March 18, 2019

   32a: Torreya in Michigan Survives -45 Degree Windchill

Two-part video of Paul Camire's Torreya in-forest plantings in Capac MI of potted seedlings and also seeds from the 2016 fall harvest in Medford Oregon. Florida Torreya has been documented surviving (with little or no damage) subzero temperatures. But this is the coldest: -45 degrees F windchill during Winter 2019. Yet the exposed Torreya branches showed no damage! The biggest problem is deer herbivory: deer even push over wire cages.

30 minutes - filmed June 24, 2019

   32b: Torreya in Michigan Survives Deer Herbivory

This last half of the video set surveys the health status of the remaining seedlings, turning up not only severe herbivory but also stunning recovery from such setbacks. Paul Camire shows and tells about three potted seedlings that suffered severe leaf-kill from just one day in full sun —, yet tremendous recovery. Video ends with the planting of 4 more (healthy) potted seedlings.

28 minutes - filmed June 24, 2019 and September 27, 2018

   31a: Freeplanting Torreya Seeds - Shoal Sanctuary FL pt 1 of 2

Site visit to Shoal Sanctuary, due west of Torreya's peak glacial refuge in northern Florida. Documentation of 9 seedlings thriving (and remarkably free of herbivory) four years after a total of 40 seeds were placed directly into the coolest, moistest habitats. Distinctions among the sites portend excellent learnings of site preferences in the years ahead.

24 minutes - filmed January 30, 2019

   31b: Freeplanting Torreya Seeds - Shoal Sanctuary FL pt 2 of 2

This last half of the video set summarizes the documentation and offers topics for further study — notably, why herbivory was absent at all planting sites. Native Christmas Ferns are pointed out as ideal neighbors for (1) camouflage, (2) its "endo" mycorrhizal network, and (3) as an "indicator species" for identifying best microsites for Torreya.

31 minutes - filmed January 30, 2019

   30a: Florida Torreya in Louisiana (Pt 1) - Mature Grove with Seedlings

Site visit to Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve. Of the four long-ago horticultural plantings outside of Florida that produce seeds that have germinated into seedlings nearby (with no human help), this mature grove of Florida Torreya in Louisiana is the first one in which knowledgeable local guides could provide the complete oral history and answer questions posed by Torreya Guardians. This is thus a superb example of why "natural history" observations and inquiry can help the development of best practices for "assisted migration" recovery actions to ensure that this climate-endangered tree does not slide into extinction.

30 minutes - filmed November 15, 2018

   30b: Florida Torreya in Louisiana (Pt 2) - Mature Grove with Seedlings

This last half of the video set covers the largest of the three mature trees — the only one that is producing any seeds. Nearby seedlings naturally established are featured, as is the 30-foot-long twin ground-trending branches that achieve photosynthesis by way of horizontal extension, well beyond what the 50-60 foot high canopy can provide.

40 minutes - filmed November 15, 2018

   29: Florida Torreya to Lake Junaluska NC - 10th Anniversary, 2018

Ten years after the 2008 planting of ten potted seedlings as a first "assisted migration" project (reported on by Audubon Magazine), Connie Barlow returns to document ongoing results. The challenges, the successes, and the learnings are all topics covered here and also on the Lake Junaluska webpage. A key learning is how Torreya is capable of adapting its growth form to conditions of shade (horizontal, yew-like form) or abundant sunlight (standard conifer form).

31 minutes - filmed October 7, 2018

   28: Free-Planting Climate-Endangered Florida Torreya - 2018 Update

Field documentation of the 6 seedlings that grew and survived with zero human help, following "free-planting" of 15 seeds directly into forest soil in April 2015. Russ Regnery was the planter, within his forest at 3,800 feet elevation on the slope of Black Rock Mountain, near Franklin NC. Video clips of the 2015 planting (Episode 12) are matched with the actual seedlings closely photographed and analyzed Nov 2018. Results: Four summers later, this species exhibits remarkable capacities to recover from early stem and leaf herbivory. A multi-site, richly illustrated, and very detailed summary of overall results entail our new Free-Planting webpage.

37 minutes - filmed November 6, 2018

   27: Seeds of Florida Torreya Produced in Ohio (23 seeds)


1. These trees have put forth leaves well acclimated to severe cold spells in Ohio.

2. Seeds are produced only on the branches that receive nearly full sun. (Connie notes from her 2005 site visit to wild California Torreya habitat that this seems to be a standard of the genus.)

14 minutes - filmed 2 October 2018

   26: Rewilding Torreya Trees, Dayton Ohio (2016-17)

Torreya Guardians in Cleveland, Loveland (Cincinnati), and now Dayton Ohio are reporting early success with nurturing Torreya taxifolia in their forests. Florida Torreya has long been regarded as a "glacial relict." Considering that the "champion" Torreya tree is in a landscape planting in a cemetery south of Dayton, Ohio seems like a sure bet for doing well in today's climate and perhaps tolerating substantial warming in the decades ahead. Diana Spiegel (with assistance from Jim Spiegel) video-interviewed by Connie Barlow.

15 minutes - filmed June 2016 and November 2017

   25: Assisted Migration of Florida Torreya to Michigan - Leelanau Peninsula

Germination success in planting seeds directly into a rich forest habitat is show-cased during a field visit to our northern-most planter in Michigan (near Traverse City). Liana May is a professional botanist who, in April 2017 planted 100 seeds (from the fall 2016 harvest of Torreya taxifolia in Medford OR). She "free-planted" the seeds directly into the conservation easement on her 40 acres of forested property. Thankfully, by the time she received the seeds, other Torreya Guardians had confirmed an ideal way to foil rodent predation: plant the seeds 4 to 6 inches deep. Liana followed those directions, so we are expecting a satisfying proportion of the seeds to produce seedlings by fall of 2019.

15 minutes - filmed July 27, 2018

   24: Florida Torreya to Cumberland Plateau - Rewilding an Endangered Tree

By far the most expansive and exciting experiment in "rewilding" Torreya taxifolia into northward states began in November 2015 on the Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee. All 400 seeds were "free-planted" directly into the ground — either 3 inches deep or under rocks — to protect the seed from rodent predation. Two years later, Connie Barlow video-documented the beginning success of 38 new seedlings.

Part 1 (24 minutes)   •   Part 2 (23 minutes)     filmed November 2017

   23: Florida Torreya's California Cousin Has Clues for Ex Situ Plantings

In 2005, Connie Barlow visited 4 forested regions in California where Torreya californica could be found growing in the wild. Her aim was to experience and photo-record observations of the trees and their surrounds such that volunteer planters of the Torreya species native to the eastern USA (along with professionals in charge of this endangered species' recovery) could discern habitat preferences of the genus and thus pinpoint similar environments in eastern states for planting seeds and seedlings. Read Connie's 2005 observational notes at: Photo-essays of California Torreyas.

Part 1 (25 minutes)   •   Part 2 (27 minutes)

   22: Florida Torreya Seed Production in Medford, Oregon (2017)

Frank Callahan transferred 1,000 seeds from the 2016 autumn harvest of Torreya taxifolia seeds — from two trees he had germinated from seed at an ex-situ planting (Medford, Oregon) some 22+ years earlier. He also shows two shrubby-form trees of Florida Torreya, about 22 years old. Significant discoveries: (a) rooted branchlets will not develop into single-stem trees and (b) Florida Torreya is harmed by sudden exposure to full-intensity sunlight, and even new leaves produced in direct sunlight may never adapt to sun-scald.

24 minutes - filmed February 2017

   21: Torreya Guardian Profile: Lee Barnes

Lee Barnes is a founding Torreya Guardian, with the longest tenure of work with Torreya taxifolia. From 1981-85 his graduate research entailed advanced propagation techniques for three endangered plants in Torreya State Park of Florida — Torreya among them. Here Lee speaks of his research, his early role in securing Torreya seeds for distribution to volunteer planters, and his broader frame of biodiversity-centric life work. Lee confirms that North Carolina is excellent habitat for this Florida species — and that it is crucial to experiment with plantings much farther north as climate continues to change.

16 minutes - filmed May 2016

   20a: Root-eating rodents kill endangered Florida Torreya at Junaluska NC

Of the 5 remaining Torreyas planted in 2008 at the lower end of the garden, 2 were killed by rodents eating the tree roots overwinter 2015/16 and another is gravely injured in the same way. Both of the uninjured young trees are being dangerously encroached upon by rapidly expanding rhododendron patches. Connie Barlow narrates, with assistance by Michael Dowd. Note: This is a 2016 follow-up to 10b video filmed 2015 at Corneille Bryan Garden in Lake Junaluska, NC.

29 minutes - filmed 21 May 2016

   20b: Two biggest Florida Torreya trees still thriving at Junaluska NC in 2016

Both trees planted in full sun (as potted seedlings) in the upper end of Corneille Bryan Garden in 2008 are continuing to excel — despite now being fully shaded by deciduous border and canopy. A key finding is that neither specimen produced vertical apical growth in 2015, but both are doing so in 2016.

21 minutes - filmed 21 May 2016

   19a: Florida Torreya to Brevard NC: 2016 Report

Buford Pruitt leads Connie Barlow on a video tour of his 17 Torreya taxifolia caged seedlings, planted in partial sun offered by his homesite edges in a regrowth forest near Brevard NC. Significant findings: Watch an "autopsy" of the one plant that died during the winter, and see evidence rodent predation of roots and lower bark. Learn how to assess plant vigor and important measurements to record. Notice the "basal sprouts" and why they should never be pruned back. Buford's trees are all from 2010, 2011, and 2012 Torreya Guardians seed harvests.

45 minutes - filmed 25 May 2016

   19b: Florida Torreya to Brevard NC: 2016 Report

The last half of Buford Pruitt's tour of his 16 still-living caged seedlings. Three apparently are planted on the compacted soil of an old logging road, and are struggling. Connie steers a discussion of the overall forest health: Why is there so little greenery on the forest floor? Pieced in are video segments of the lush greenery surrounding the original torreya plantings at the Waynesville site, 700 feet higher in elevation and on a far steeper (never cattle-grazed?) slope. Overall, this 2-part series is a superb video for all new Torreya Guardians to watch — in order to help them assess their own properties for where best to plant seedlings.

35 minutes - filmed 25 May 2016

   18: Florida Torreya Grove at Biltmore Gardens NC: 75 years old

In 1939 Chauncey Beadle supplied the Biltmore Estate with a dozen Torreya taxifolia seeds or specimens collected in Florida — prior to any understanding of climate change and endangered species. Now this 75-year-old grove and its offspring are precious for securing the wellbeing of the species and for demonstrating that (with little human help) North Carolina is an ideal habitat for escaping the native diseases of a now too-warm Florida. Connie Barlow narrates photos and videos she captured on site visits to the Biltmore: February 2004, August 2006, and April 2015.

1 hour - assembled and posted March 15, 2016

   17: Site Visits to Florida's Endangered Torreya and Yew Trees

Connie Barlow presents 15 years of baseline photos and videos she recorded of Torreya taxifolia and Taxus floridana in their historically native range in Torreya State Park in northern Florida. Photos of spectacular California Torreya trees, recorded by Barlow in 2005, show the potential for Florida Torreya recovery efforts to strive for. Fred Bess shows (in 2014 video) 2 Asian conifers (Cephalotaxus and Cunninghamia) used in landscaping that are Torreya look-alikes. Paleoecological evidence that Florida's Torreya was "left behind" in its peak glacial refuge supports "assisted migration" actions.

63 minutes - assembled & published, January 2016

   16: Planting Florida Torreya Seeds in SW OHIO - assisted migration

This wild forest site on Bob Miller's property NE of Cincinnati Ohio is rich in diverse habitats, notably a deep ravine in glacial till down to the limestone bedrock. This is the first video in which current species range maps are overlaid on sections depicting native trees onsite. A total of 56 seeds planted (seeds from the 2014 harvests).

33 minutes - filmed May 20, 2015

   16b: Florida Torreya to SW Ohio - preliminary report (Nov 2017)

Documents progress in all 3 elements of this experiment led by Bob Miller: (1) free-planting of seeds (shallow burial, no protection) into wild regrowth forest; (2) shallow burial outdoors in a rodent/deer impenetrable exclosure; (3) planting into regrowth forest of two potted seedlings (one rodent-damaged).

15 minutes - filmed November 12, 2017

   15a: Rewilding Florida Torreya to Cullowhee, NC - 2015 report

This wild forest site on Jim Thomson's property east of Cullowhee is the first location where Torreya Guardians have had access to a north-facing mountain slope. Here they will learn whether Florida Torreya thrives in this particular habitat of the southern Appalachians. Elevation 2,600 feet. Connie Barlow films and narrates this field survey, led by Jim Thomson. Here they observe the 4 Torreya taxifolia seedlings that Jim planted 18 months earlier from their pots. The original big-needled leaves are seen here to be dying back, but healthy shorter needles are the growth form that this cool, shady location seems to call forth.

17 minutes - filmed April 26, 2015

   15b: Germinating Torreya Seeds: 2015 report

Jim Thomson, Lee Barnes, and Connie Barlow discuss what we all have learned thus far about how to germinate Florida Torreya seeds outdoors, in locales far north of the "historically native range" of this endangered conifer species. A lot is still unknown. But we do know that seeds harvested from the same mother tree in the same year will span a number of years to germinate, even when planted under the same conditions. The final 5 minutes of the video are of Connie late June 2015, showing the varied germination rates of 4 seeds she is watching closely in a rodent-protected container in Ludington Michigan.

13 minutes - filmed April 27, 2015

   14: Free-Planting Torreya Seeds into Wild Forest: 2015 report of best practices

First video of best practices discovered by Torreya Guardians in attempting to plant seeds directly into the soil of wild forest in the southern Appalachian Mountains. This video chronicles Connie Barlow's visit to the site 17 months after planting. This video is superseded by later free-planting documentation in November 2018 (VIDEO 28) and January 2019 (VIDEO 31).

47 minutes - filmed April 24, 2015

   13: Florida Torreya to Ohio's Dawes Arboretum

Dawes Arboretum (Newark, Ohio) received ten seeds from Torreya Guardians from the 2006 harvest by Biltmore Gardens (Asheville, NC). Possible learnings are: (1) A full deciduous canopy of oak and maple seems to be superb habitat for Torreya in central Ohio. (2) Exposure to full sun and especially to polar winds seem to be very stressful to this genus. Video also compares Florida Torreya's leaf and branch morphology against two sister species native to Asia that have been planted in Dawes Arboretum: Torreya grandis (China) and Torreya nucifera (Japan).

23 minutes - filmed May 17, 2015

   13b: Florida Torreya to Ohio's Dawes Arboretum (pt b) 2016

Documents superb annual growth on the two Florida Torreya specimens beneath a full deciduous canopy (and protected from winter winds by a border of evergreen conifers). Confirms 1-month difference in vegetational budburst bt the Florida Torreya (May budburst) and adjacent Chinese Torreya (June budburst). Speculation on the importance of nearby maple helping the Torreyas by shared fungal root symbionts.

17 minutes - filmed June 18, 2016

   12: FL Torreya to Franklin, North Carolina: 2015 progress report

North Carolina was the destination of Torreya Guardians 2008 "rewilding" of Florida Torreya to its presumed ancestral home in pre-glacial warm times. Russ Regnery leads Connie Barlow on a tour of his young torreya trees 7 years later. Topics of discussion include (1) the advantage of sun-shading screen during the early years if Torreya is planted out in the open, (2) how Torreya is vulnerable to winter sun and wind scalding/dessication if not protected by a canopy, (3) the advantages of planting near nurse trees for shading and for sharing their symbiotic root fungi. "Free-planting" seeds from the 2014 seed harvest directly beneath the forest canopy is the final half of the video.     32 minutes - filmed April 29, 2015. Scroll up to VIDEO 28 for October 2018 site visit documentation.

   11: FL Torreya to Highlands NC: 90 years of de facto rewilding (2015)

"Assisted migration" for climate-endangered Florida Torreya inadvertently began 90 years ago, when botanist Thomas Grant Harbison planted this conifer species on his mountainside land in Highlands, NC. April 2015, Torreya Guardians documented this gone-wild grove — likely, the best and oldest example of how this ancient native lineage grows beneath a deciduous canopy and its slow dispersal by squirrels. Connie Barlow narrates with camera; Jack Johnston explores and measures the Torreya grove and surrounding plants.

    28 minutes - published April 19, 2015

   10A: FL Torreya to North Carolina (pt 1): 2015 report (Waynesville, NC)

First video-documentation of fate of historic 2008 rewilding action of the endangered Torreya taxifolia from Florida to North Carolina. Connie Barlow films and narrates a survey of the 21 plants in wild forest on the slope of Eaglenest Mountain, near Waynesville. Most important results are both positive and negative, which help us ascertain the habitat preferences of this species (moisture, shade, slope, aspect).

    54 minutes - published April 9, 2015

   10B: FL Torreya to North Carolina (pt 2): 2015 report (Junaluska, NC)

Second half of video series above. Key findings: (1) Counting vegetative buds at the tips of branches misleads, as older plants sprout branchlets on older regions of branches, too. (2) Don't plant near rhododendrons that will encroach on our plants. (3) Seedlings too long in the pot (rootbound) are inferior specimens for assessing Torreya's ability to thrive in wild settings, as their roots cannot support the tree unwatered; thus the main stem may die while growth is directed to a basal sprout. (4) Full sun may be stressful for Torreya outside of watered areas, but because potted seedlings have a full-sun growth form, the plant will need to reorient branching to a horizontal, yewlike form when under a deciduous canopy in wild settings.  45 minutes - published June 7, 2015

UPDATE ON THE JUNALUSKA NC SITE: Scroll up to VIDEO 29 for the October 2018 site visit documentation.

   09: FL Torreya to Ocoee Watershed 2: Wolf Creek, NC 2015

Thomas Mesko receives 43 Torreya taxifolia seeds from Connie Barlow, drawn from the 2014 harvest of Torreya Guardians. This video documents seeds being planted generally on north-facing slopes, between 1,600 and 1,800 feet elevation on Thomas's 50 acres of forested property along Wolf Creek, in the North Carolina section of the Ocoee Watershed.

    13 minutes - published March 29, 2015

MARCH 2019 UPDATE: Site visit reveals that this set of shallow-planted seeds suffered 100% seed predation. This was an important learning, as only after the 2015 planting occurred did we ascertain that planting seeds 3 inches deep deterred rodent seed predators.

   08: FL Torreya to Ocoee Watershed 1: Greasy Creek, TN 2015

Clint Bancroft shows Connie Barlow the 9 Florida Torreyas he has planted on his 18 acres in southeastern Tennessee (plus 2 more in pots). At 1,100 ft elevation, and in a mixed deciduous/conifer forest, all the Torreyas look healthy. In closing, Connie gives Clint 40 seeds from the fall 2014 Torreya Guardians' harvest. Clint demonstrates his rodent-proof outdoor shelter for germinating those seeds.

    19 minutes - published March 27, 2015

MARCH 2019 UPDATE: Site visit documents tremendous success of the outplanted seedlings recorded in this video (and germination of the 2015 donated seeds in protected pots). Video documentation will be posted later. Also refer to the Greasy Creek TN Torreya webpage for ongoing reports and photos.

   07: Ancient Florida Torreya in Columbus Georgia

While visiting the famous sole remaining Torreya taxifolia in Columbus, Georgia, Connie Barlow was struck by its location right along a free-flowing section of the Chattahoochee River. The Chattahoochee is the main conduit between the peak-glacial plant refuge in n. Florida (along the Apalachicola River) and the southwestern Appalachian Mountains, where it would have lived in warmer times. "Might this ancient Torreya actually have been growing as a wild, native tree when the early white settlers built their first homes there?" asks Connie. And might Torreya seeds have used the river to quickly migrate south downstream, but had only squirrels for help in moving back north?  24 minutes - published February 26, 2015

   06: Torreya Trees at Shoal Sanctuary FL: pt 02 Grotto Ravine (preparing to plant seeds)

Connie Barlow identifies sites for 18 seeds of Torreya taxifolia to be planted in the moist, cool habitat of Grotto Ravine, within Shoal Sanctuary, Florida. Connie walks with camera through the ravine, speaking about why this spring-fed sandstone ravine in the Florida panhandle might be the best place for Florida Torreya to make a last stand in its home state. Clips of this video appear in the video documentation 4 years later (VIDEO 31, filmed onsite January 2019).

    28 minutes - published February 21, 2015

   05: Torreya Trees at Shoal Sanctuary FL: pt 01 Four Torreyas on Sandy Uplands

Chris Larson of Shoal Sanctuary, Florida, shows the four Torreya trees thriving since their planting in 2001. Of note: (1) only one tree has grown reproductive structures (male); (2) one survived a severe burn amid the longleaf pines; (3) all are thriving in nearly full sunlight on sandy soils; (4) agricultural lime is applied only rarely (when the evergreen leaves show yellowing); and (5) all four specimens are watered twice weekly.

10 minutes - published February 17, 2015

   04: Florida Torreya in Ohio's Secrest Arboretum: 2014 report

Fred Bess and Connie Barlow interview Secrest Arboretum's Paul Snyder re the successful germination of seeds from the 2011 seed harvest of Torreya Guardians. They discuss germination time, growth characteristics, preventing tree injury by overpopulated deer, and ultimately where in the arboretum the young trees will be planted.

11 minutes - published October 7, 2014

   03: Torreya taxifolia assisted migration to Cleveland Ohio - 2014 report

Fred Bess reports on 5 young Torreya trees planted at his in Parma, OHIO (a suburb of Cleveland). Significant findings: (1) All 5 survived the -17F degrees polar vortex of January 2014. (2) Although deer do not eat Torreya, bucks scrape antlers on the stiff branches of juvenile plants, causing injury. Thus any Torreya planted in areas overpopulated with deer must protect young trees during autumn. WATCH VIDEO 27, filmed October 2018 to see how these trees have matured — and seeded!

9 minutes - published April 11, 2014

   02: Climate Endangered Florida Tree Moved to Michigan: Torreya taxifolia

Consensus is growing that, of all trees native to the USA, "Florida" Torreya (an evergreen conifer related to yew trees) is the most in need of immediate assistance in moving north, as it was "left behind" in a peak glacial refugium since the end of the last ice advance. Given adequate seed stock, Connie Barlow decided it was crucial to discover just how far north in today's climate Torreya can grow. Here she documents an experiment.

29 minutes - published September 26, 2014

MICHIGAN UPDATE 2018: No seedlings visible in 4 years confirms that shallow seed-planting is food court for rodents. Visit Episode 25 to see another Michigan volunteer who showcases her seedlings — planted 4 to 6 inches deep.

   01: Helping Plants Move North in Anthropocene Climate: Torreya Guardians 2013 Report

Climate is warming too fast for large-seeded plant species to migrate north via the animal partners (e.g., squirrels) that have dependably dispersed seeds for millions of years. In 2008, a group of citizen-naturalists (Torreya Guardians) legally planted 31 seedlings of the endangered Florida conifer Torreya taxifolia within private forests in the mountains of North Carolina. Connie Barlow reports their learnings during the first five years.

75 minutes - published November 7, 2013


   VIDEO: Foresters Outpace Conservation Biologists in Climate Adaptation

The "assisted migration" ongoing project of Torreya Guardians is regularly cited in academic literature on climate adaptation controversies in biodversity and ecosystems protection. Here, Connie Barlow presents the first (highly illustrated) talk to professionals. Speaking to faculty and students at Michigan Technological University's School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Barlow presents the history of the "assisted migration" controversy — highlighting the reasons why foresters have already taken actions where conservation biologists fear to tread. (filmed Sept 11, 2015)

Note: This video is episode 08 in an ongoing video series by Barlow on forestry and climate adaptation. See an annotated list of titles and links to all such videos here: "CLIMATE, TREES, and LEGACY".